Plant Health: EURL on Bacteria & EURL on Viruses, Viroids and Phytoplasmas

Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus

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Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is a tobamovirus causing major concerns for growers because it may cause serious losses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum spp.). In tomato ToBRFV may cause leaf chlorosis/mosaic, rugosity and leaf narrowing on young leaves(Figure 1 and 2) and chlorotic and/or necrotic spots on fruits. In pepper symptoms are not fully clear but might be similar. ToBRFV is readily spread by contact, propagation material (grafts and cuttings) and possibly also via seeds. Commission Implementing Decision (EU 2019/1615) establishes emergency measures to prevent the introduction into and the spread within the Union. These measures require the implementation of strict hygiene and test protocols for plants, fruits and/or seeds.

At present information on the properties of ToBRFV is limited, and a harmonised diagnostic test protocol is not available. Therefore, this webpage aims to share relevant information on ToBRFV between National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and Official Laboratories (OLs) and, where possible, within the public domain. Information will be added and updated regularly. Please also add your own documents and data on ToBRFV. You can upload documents yourself or send them to the EURL Virology mailbox

Please note that information on the NRL restricted part of the domain cannot be shared outside of the EURL-NRL Virology network.

ToBRFV picture 1 ToBRFV picture 2 
Figure 1(left): Leaf chlorosis in tomato caused by ToBRFV (NPPO-NL)
Figure 2(right): Narrowing of leaves, typical symptoms of several tobamoviruses in tomato plants (NPPO-NL).


Links to information and documents

Pest reports (NRL restricted)
This folder contains pest reports of ToBRFV which provide detailed information on outbreaks of ToBRFV in the European Union, as provided by the National Plant Protection Organisations. 

Pest risk analysis
A working group is currently drafting an EPPO PRA on Tomato brown rugose fruit virus.

Test protocols and validation data (NRL Restricted)
This folder contains test protocols and validation data provided by laboratories testing for ToBRFV. Note that these test protocols are not used or selected by the EURL Virology. In addition, guidelines for testing water samples is included. Please contact the laboratory for questions and further details.

Public protocols

EU Horizon 2020 project Valitest
Within the framework of Valitest (Work Package 1 Round 2) a test performance study for ToBRFV on plant material will be organised in spring 2020. See also Twitter Valitest EU project.

Euphresco project
Within the framework of Euphresco project 2019-A-327 a test performance study for ToBRFV on seeds of tomato and pepper will be organised in spring 2020.

Proficiency test EURL Virology
The EURL Virology will organise a proficiency test for ToBRFV, based on the results of the test performance studies organised within the projects Valitest and Euphresco.

EPPO Diagnostic protocol
The EPPO Panel on on Diagnostics in Virology and Phytoplasmology, agreed to start drafting a diagnostic protocol on ToBRFV in spring 2020 (report). The protocol is in the final stage of drafting and, after country consultation, planned to be published in short term. Results of the aforementioned test performance studies and proficiency tests will be included later. Lead author: Adrian Fox, Fera, UK.

Genomic data
Complete genome sequence data of a German and Israeli isolate of ToBRFV are available via EPPO-Q-Bank ( ). In addition, near-complete genome sequences of at least ten isolates are available via NCBI Genbank ( ).

Collection materials for reference
Three ToBRFV isolates from Germany and Israel are available via the DSMZ collection ( )

Presentations (NRL restricted)
This folder provides the presentation of Bram de Hoop on the situation of ToBRFV in the Netherlands in the SCoPAFF meeting.

This list contains publications on relevant aspects of ToBRFV.

Other websites